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Grozny is a city in Russia, the capital of the Chechnya Republic, standing on both banks of the Sunzha River, the tributary of the Terek River.
The population of Grozny is about 283,700 (2015), the area – 324 sq. km.
The phone code – +7 8712, the postal codes – 364000-364099.
Grozny was founded in 1818, when the fortress Groznaya was built. It was the military outpost of the Russian Empire that played an important role during the Caucasian War. It was populated by the Terek Cossacks.
After the Caucasus War, in 1869, the settlement received the name Grozny (meaning “fearsome”). The town was growing slowly before the discovery of oil, happened in the beginning of the 20th century. Soon, Grozny became the center of the Russian oil fields in the Caucasus region.
During the Soviet times, Grozny was several times repopulated by Russians or by Chechens and Ingush. For example, before the World War II, the population of Grozny included a lot of Chechens and Ingush people, but, in 1944, almost all of them were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberian regions of the USSR for “collaboration” with Nazi Germany.
Grozny city climate is temperate continental with mild winters, long and hot summers. The city is not protected from the cold northern winds, and therefore, in contrast to the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar region, winters are colder here. The average temperature in January is -3.2 degrees Celsius, in July – +23.9 degrees C.
Large-scale reconstruction of the city was carried out in recent years. The airport “Grozny” offers flights to Moscow.
Since the founding of the city of Grozny, there has been an active increase in the population.
But since the 90s, the situation has changed dramatically. After the revolutionary actions and the beginning of the military conflict, the population of Grozny was almost halved. A huge number of people of Russian nationality, as well as the Ingush, Ukrainians and Jews, hastily left the city, leaving their property, houses and valuables in the city.
For almost 10 years, tens of thousands of people left Grozny annually. The military operations that took place also could not help but leave their mark on the general demography of the region. But by 2000, there was a tendency for population growth. In 2002, the population of Grozny was 210 700 people. By 2009, that number was already 231,200.
At the moment, the population of Grozny is close to 300,000 people. A record number of Grozny residents accounted for 1989, when almost 400 thousand people lived in the city.
Chechens live their lives, not like life in other cities of Russia. Here the Russian language is very often replaced by Chechen, which you can hear on TV and in the store and in municipalities. However, one should not assume that no one speaks Russian here. Russians are respected here, but since most Chechens live here, people increasingly prefer their native language.
The courage and modesty of women are valued here. You will not be able to see girls in miniskirts and with a deep neckline in Grozny. The female population here more often walks in hijabs or, at least, with a head covered with a handkerchief. In Grozny, as well as throughout Chechnya, Islamic traditions and customs are highly valued. Therefore, if you decide to call in Grozny as a guest, you need to take into account who lives by what laws.
Each neighborhood lives its own quiet life. The courtyards are well maintained and clean. Nearby is located all the necessary infrastructure (kindergartens, schools, hospitals, supermarkets). Here, children’s playgrounds are kept and fined, for example, for parking in the area set aside for children’s play.
Now, Grozny is replete with many new modern buildings, a business center, and new beautiful office buildings. The construction of new facilities does not stop here for a single day. In Grozny, the streets are actively restored, which gives the city a special comfort, which is not found in every city in the North Caucasus. Regardless of whether you were just passing through Grozny, or you came here for a visit, you will immediately feel that you are taking care of the inhabitants.
Rough-route taxis drive around the city almost around the clock, which can easily take you anywhere in Grozny and beyond. According to the tradition of the southern republics, there is not very developed public transport, such as trolley buses and buses.
In Grozny, over the past decade, many new schools and universities have been opened. Education in the city is reaching a new level, which attracts young people from all the republics of the North Caucasus to the city.
A favorite vacation spot of Grozny residents, like most Caucasians, is a restaurant. In Grozny, there are a lot of them, for people of different incomes. Here you will also find cozy cafes where young people like to spend their time. Large and small restaurants where Chechens love to celebrate all the events. Here there are expensive VIP-restaurants, whose clients are businessmen, politicians and top managers of firms.
The main objects of the cultural life of Grozny:
- Grozny Russian Drama Theater named after M. Lermontov (Kirov Avenue, 13a),
- Chechen State Drama Theater named after Kh. Nuradilov (Esambaev Avenue, 9),
- Chechen State Theater for Young People (Staropromyslovskoye Highway, 36),
- Chechen State Youth Theater Serlo (Theater Square, 1/75),
- The State Symphony Orchestra of the Chechen Republic,
- The National Library of the Chechen Republic (at the intersection of Dagestan (Ugryumov) Street and Lorsanov Street),
- The Republican Children’s Library of the Chechen Republic (part of the National Library),
- The National Museum of the Chechen Republic (Lorsanov Street),
- Chechen State Philharmonic (Theater Square, 1/75).